1.1 them often; however, there are other means

 1.1 An Overview of Digital Forensics                                                                                                              
With the development of science and technology coupled with the
daily use of computers in our everyday lives, it has become expedient to
include the contents of computers as part of official evidence. Laptops,
servers and desktops are familiar to us because we use them often; however,
there are other means by which forensic evidence can be stored. Other devices
that can perform similar storage capability include Personal digital assistants
(PDAs), memory cards and video games. The focus of digital forensics is based
on this data or usage of these devices.                                                                                                        1.1.1 What is Digital Forensics?                                                                                                               
      Digital forensics is the process of finding and
reading electronic data. It can also be defined as the process involved
in the collection, protection, documentation, validation, analysis and
presentation of digital evidence, obtained from computerized sources, by the
application of established scientific methods which is beneficial in the
reconstruction of events or criminology.                                                                      
Marcella and Menendez states that cyber forensics, e-discovery, digital,
forensics, computer and computer forensics mean relatively the same thing yet
none has emerged as a defacto standard (2008). They further presented an
operational definition of computer forensics as “the science of locating,
extracting, and analyzing types of data from different devices, which
specialists then interpret to server as legal evidence”. They also reiterated that
computer forensics can also be seen as an integration of law and computer
science discipline because it involves the collection and analysis of data from
computer systems, storage devices, grids, wireless infrastructures in such a
way that is acceptable as evidence in a court of law.                              Another definition
identifies digital forensics as “the practice of scientifically derived and
proven technical methods and tools toward the preservation, collection,
validation, identification, analysis, interpretation, documentation and
presentation of subsequent digital information derived from digital sources for
the purpose of facilitating or furthering the reconstruction of events as
forensic evidence” (SY Willassen and SF Mjølsnes, 2005). This definition
focuses on the reconstruction of events suggestively rather than criminality.                                                                                                                                                 Digital forensics utilizes comprehensive
techniques in ascertaining viable information, from electronic gadgets, that
may be accepted in court. This includes a chain of custody and documentation.
The process of collecting digital forensic evidence can be divided into two
distinct areas. The first area involves the collection of evidence without
changing any of its contents and making sure that it is admissible in the court
of law.                                                                                                                                                        
The second area is the real usage of law enforcement grade and
standard forensic policies that may allow the acceptability of the evidence in
court. The objective of this document is to provide a succinct overview of the
process involved in collection and appraisal of forensic evidence.                                                 Digital forensics is a constantly evolving
scientific field with many sub-disciplines. Some of these sub-disciplines are;                                                                                                                              
                    1. Computer
Forensics which involves the identification, conservation, assemblage,
documentation and analysis of evidence obtained from electronic gadgets such as
laptops, desktop computers and other storage media to be used in technical
examinations and legal proceedings.                                                       
2. Network Forensics which involves the real-time tracking, capture, storing
and scrutiny of network operations in order to detect the cause of
cyber-crimes, irregular network traffic, security infringement and malware or
virus attacks.                                                                                                                                         3. Mobile Devices Forensics which
involves the retrieval of electronic evidence from diverse gadget such as smartphones,
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards, PDAs, Global Positioning System (GPS)
devices, tablets and game consoles.                                                
                                                                        4. Digital
Image Forensics which involves the abstraction and examination of photographic
images to confirm their originality by retrieving the metadata of the image
file in order to discover its source.                 5. Digital Video/Audio
Forensics which involves the assemblage, study and assessment of audio and
video recordings. This aspect of forensics is used to determine whether a
recording is original or altered or mutilated.                                                                                                                                                             6. Memory forensics which involves the
retrieval of digital evidence from the Random Access Memory (RAM) of a running
computer. It is otherwise known as live acquisition.                                                   1.2
The Origin of the Digital Forensics and Evidence                                                                                              
The origin of digital forensics can be traced back to the 1970s when
investigators in the military began to delve into cyber-crimes and needed
detailed technical approaches to solve these issues.  Many institutions now include Computer
Forensics course in their programs to efficiently lecture students on its
development and its influence on individuals and the society in general. The
adoption of this recently introduced professional innovation began in the
United States when government agencies realized that they need to employ
investigative measures in solving criminal operations related to high-tech
gadgets. The launch of Federal Bureau Investigation (FBI) Magnetic Media in 1984
was what prompted the introduction of computer forensics into the system. This
program was later renamed as Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART).                                                                                             
             Subsequently, the International Organization
on Computer Evidence (IOCE) was created in 1995. From the mid-90s to this time,
the field of computer forensics has developed beyond imagination; hence, law
enforcement agencies have taken as point of duty to train their workforce in
the field of cybercrime in order to detect internet criminals.                                                                                                           
                   FBI Magnetic Media Program created… this later
becomes the Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART)                                                                                                                                     


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