1. to cover the analytical procedures to estimate

1. Introduction


The following paper is about an overview into the design
of liquid retaining structures designed to Eurocode. This topic attempts to cover
the analytical procedures to estimate crack widths when designing liquid
retaining structures which will require to have durability, adequate strength
and able to withstand cracking and deflection that will eventually lead to a clear
representation of elements influencing the limits of cracking in ‘Eurocode’
that is used to design the structures (Forth et al. 2014).

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engineering principles, criterions and analysis methods have been used to
establish to design of liquid/water retaining structure. Therefore,
traditionally these particular structures are usually deigned to Eurocode BS EN
1992-3, 1992-1-1 in correlation with the UK National Annex together with British
Standard BS 8110, BS 8007 which has now been withdrawn. 



When designing liquid retention
structures long term structural hazards effect, therefore design precautions
should be made accordingly. For example, cracking of these elements is an issue
and is caused due to loading, temperature and shrinkage effects. For this
reason, careful thought to ultimate strength together with serviceability of
cracking to control the cracking is to be taken into account during the design
process (Mosley, B. et al. 2012: 381 – 382). Which proves that design of liquid
retaining structures have constantly been a matter to engineers as inevitable
short and long term cracking has a significant effect in the structural design
(Nawy 2008: 4–34).


The aim of this
project is to a nalyse fundamental theories for controlling cracking designed
according to latest methods used in Eurocode.

The criteria chosen
to investigate is crack width controlling with respect to liquid retaining
concrete structures. Hence the primary objective is to identifying trends in
the method with an intention to comprehend the design procedure in an improved
manner allowing engineers to design efficiently and economically.




Chapter 02

2. Methodology

2.1 Design approach

Initially the structural design
begins selection of member sizes and reinforcement. Next step is carrying out
the analysis of the structural member itself by calculating its strength and
crack widths due to load. Likewise, the limit stress method is used to
calculate the desired thickness which is similar to carrying out crack width
calculations which also helps is controlling the thickness (Forth et al. 2014:


The main reason for the choice of
cracking to be investigated in this research was to streamline the knowledge
around the analysis of crack width produced to flexure, tension and bending
which is being implemented in the Eurocode. 

The use of Eurocode 2 Part 3 – Design
of Liquid retaining and containment structures will essentially be a key
principle that represents the approach to investigating the adopted limit state
design, ultimate limit state for the control of cracking and analytical methods
to estimate crack widths (P, Martin, and Forth 2014b: 4).


2.2 Identified

In order to identify major issues in
the design of reinforced liquid retaining structures with respect to cracking,
the following British Standards and Eurocodes were reviewed. Controlled
cracking theorems used by each code together with its assumptions were
investigated. The codes used to investigate crack width control are;


·       BS EN 1992-3: Eurocode 2: Design of
Concrete Structures – Part 3: Liquid Retaining and Containment Structures BSI

·       BS EN 1992-1-1: Eurocode 2: Design of
concrete structures – Part 1: General requirements BSI 2004

·       the structure of the study will be
based upon a logical sequential engineering approach to meeting its aims and

The most critical tasks consist of
providing detailed analysis in reviewing previously calculated/designed liquid
retaining structures designed to Eurocode for the purpose of providing
analytical and valid justifications to the respective processes. A methodical
evaluation will be carried through the aid of matrix tables, pros & cons,
tables, charts and figures. Predominantly the research consists of carrying out
in-depth analysis to the design of liquid/water retaining structures to illustrate
the compliance with basic strength and serviceability requirement stated in


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