2.3. the need for housing as urbanization has

2.3. Review of Critical Literature

The choice of use of building materials is often
influenced by the following set of factors: ease of access to raw materials,
technological access of the building material; the method of construction used;
resourcefulness of the client and willingness of support groups to assist in
the constructions (Bredenoord ,2017).

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Over
the last decade; there has been a rapid increase in human population that has
driven up the need for housing as urbanization has led to increased number of
informal settlements to match the demand for housing (United Nations
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, UNISDR, 2005). Urbanization has
resulted in poor planning leading to increased case of slums arising as
increased cost of housing has resulted in sprout of unhygienic low cost houses
that are at time uninhabitable (UN, Habitat 2010). Unaffordability of decent
housing is attributable to increased cost of land as well as the construction
costs (UN, Habitat 2010).  Misplaced
government policies have also played a role in making housing unaffordable
(Angel, 2000).

The
Kenyan government has tried to make housing affordable through various house
schemes such as Balozi estate and the Kibera slum upgrade plan though there is
still a considerable deficit in the numbers (UNISDR, 2005). This can be
attributed to increased lending rates for mortgage seekers and lack of capital
to cater for the rising cost of conventional construction. Poor quality of the
houses constructed results in various collapse of buildings as contractors take
short cuts to maintain their margins (Shnell, 2014).

ACM
is the next frontier to achieve affordable mass housing. Dissemination and
creation of awareness of these ACM needs a jointed effort by the government,
NGOs, construction industry stake holder- architects, Quantity surveyors,
engineers, county approvers, developers/ contractors. This affordability will
aid in enabling low to middle income earners that make a majority of the
working class in the country are able to afford decent housing based on their
purchasing power.

ACM
specifically prefab has shown that there are pros and cons to use of the
technology. Overall through the benefits outweigh the cons attributable to the
faster construction time line that not only reduces overall cost of the
constitution but also the labor cost. In addition, it is more environmental
friendly in comparison to the brick and mortar technology (Lu Na, 2007). The
constraints related to the use of prefab range from logistical challenges in
transport, design inflexibility once the panels have been designed, upfront charges
of consultancy and customization as well as the “temporal mentality” (Haas et
al., 2000).

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