ABNORMAL therefore needed to decide what behaviour is

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR -STEREOTYPIES

v
In
order to recognize that behaviour is abnormal , the person observing must be
familiar with the normal behaviour of that species.

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v
A
difficulty arises if many of the animals 
kept show the same kind of abnormal behaviour,may be taken as normal
behaviour.eg:bar biting in sows.

v
In
order to obtain knowledge of the behavioural repertoire of animals and
establish what is normality it is necessary to study the animals in a
relatively complex environment where they have the opportunity to show the full
range of their behaviour,it would not be the wild environment  but it should provide all the components that
are important for the animal.

v
An
extensive knowledge of the biology of 
animals and a detailed ecological investigation are therefore needed to
decide what behaviour is abnormal.

v
Abnormal
behaviour is behaviour that differs in pattern, frequency or context from that
which is shown by most members  of a
species in conditions that allow a full range of behaviour.

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOURS

1.Stereotypies

2.Self directed and Environment directed

3.Addressed to another individual

4.Failure of function

5.Anamalous reactivity

STEREOTYPIES

 

It is a repeated ,relativelyinvariate
sequence  of movements which has no
obvious purpose.

Behavioural repertoires of animals  such as walking,flapping flight  would not be called stereotypies  rather it should have some apparent lack of
function.

By the time stereotypy is established no
simple function is served.

Physiology of stereotypy:

ü
The
performance of stereotyped behaviour depends on brain dopamine systems and
opiate peptides in the brain.

ü
Naloxone
,which blocks the  mu receptor opiate
sites for opioids such as beta endorphin,when administered cease the
stereotypic behaviour.

ü
Sows
that showed much stereotypy had lower mu and kappa receptorsand lower dopamine
in the frontal cortex,while horses shoeing more stereotypies had more dopamine
receptors in the nucleus.

ü
Stereotypies
occur in situations  where the individual
lacks control of its environment.

Possible causes
:

Ø Frustration
about food inadequacy

Ø Barren
environment,housing in individual stables

ü

Occurrence of stereotypies can be
alleviated or eradicated by appropriate environmental enrichment.

1.    
Pacing
or route tracing

2.    
Circling
and tail chasing.

3.    
Rocking
,swaying and weaving

4.    
Rubbinginvolve
other parts of  the                                                     

5.    
Pawing
and stall kickingbody

6.    
Head
shaking and head nodding

7.    
Wind
sucking

8.    
Eye
rolling

 

9.    
Sham
chewing

10.                       
Tongue
rolling involve

11.                       
Licking
or crib whetting oral part

12.                       
Bar
biting ,tether biting or crib biting

13.                       
Drinker
pressing

 

 

1.PACING
OR ROUTE TRACING

 The repeated action patterns during pacing or
route tracing are those used in walking 
or other locomotion,but the animal follows a path that reurns to its
origin and which is often repeated with only minor modifications.

Examples

1.Route tracing of zoo animals in cages

2.Horses under conditions of minimal
exercise in chronic confinement

3.Hens before oviposition  if no nest material is available.

 

Causes:

1.Frustration due to confinement,absence
of social partner,absence of food.

Remedy :

Providing comfortable environment by
eliminating thwarting circumstances.

2.CIRCLING
OR TAIL CHASING

Animals 
turn in tight circles and try to catch their own tails.

Causes:

Neurological disorder

Dermatological problem

Environmental  inadequacy

Frustration

Example :

 
Tail chasing in dogs.

Remedy:

Treatment if it is neurological or
dermatological disorder,

Remove the frustrating situation.

3)ROCKING
, SWAYING AND WEAVING:

The animal remains in one place,but
the  body is moved forwards and
backwards  from side to side, with or
without head swinging.

Examples:

Monkeys in captivity

Horses and cattle when tethered show rocky
behaviour.

Weaving in race horses,resulting in
weight loss.

Causes:

No companies ,deprived of mother.

No variety in the environment

Remedy:

Tying the horse with cross chains to
limit the lateral movement of the head.

Turning out to pasture ,Enforced
exercise

4)
RUBBING:

 Some part of the body is moved against  solid object and the movement  is repeated so many times ,sometimes to
alleviate local irritation.

Causes:

Close confinement, chronic restriction

Examples :

Horned cattle rubbing against wall.

Head rubbing in pigs

Horses rubbing hindquarters.

5)PAWING  AND STALL KICKING

Pawing is a normal behaviour of four
legged animals,it becomes  abnormal  when performed with vigour in a persistent
stereotyped fashion.

Causes :

Frustration in dogs

Confinement

Attention seeking  in horses in case of stall kicking

Remedy:

Putting in pasture

Hanging 
mats or barriers

6)HEAD
SHAKING OR HEAD NODDING

Head is moved vertically,laterally with
a rotatory movement of neck.

Examples :

Head shaking in domestic fowl.

Head nodding in horses

Causes:

Close presence of observer in caged
birds

Noxious gas in poultry house.

Confinement

Remedy :Comfortable environment

7)WIND
SUCKING

Movements  during which air is sucked in and expelled.

Common in horses

Remedy:

Use of wind sucker strap fastened
tightly around the throat,with a heart shaped piece of thick leather held
between the angles of the jaws with the pointed end protruding towards a
pharyngeal area,  which causes discomfort
to the horses.

Creation of fistulae on each side of the
mouth between the buccal cavity and outer cheek.

8).EYE
ROLLING :

The eyes are moved around in the orbit
at a time when no visible object is present.

Young calves confined in crates
sometimes stand immobile  for extended
periods and eye rolling is repeated.

9).
SHAM CHEWING

Moving 
jaws when the animal has no food in its mouth in monogastric animals.

Common in sows  when tethered in stalls singly causes
frothing and foaming of saliva.

Remedy :

Providing straw or fibrous material to
chew and root.

Group housing.

 

 

 

10).TONGUE
ROLLING:

The tongue is extruded from the mouth
and moved by curling and uncurling outside or inside  the mouth with no solid matter present.

Common in Cattle and calves immediately
before and after feeding.In horses it is called as tongue drawing

Remedy :

Wind sucking traps

Insertion of metal ring at the frenulum
lingue

Provision of salt licks

11).LICKING
AND CRIB WHETTING

Tongue is applied  repeatedly to an areas of animal’s own body
or some objects in the surroundings.

Remedy :

Good supply of feed

Free environment

12)
BAR BITING ,TETHER BITING OR CRIB BITING

The animal opens and closes its mouth
around a bar and performs chewing movement.

Pregnant sows which are more restricted
show this behaviour. Crate in front and sides are made of metal piping or
tethers that restrict the movement of the sow

Bar-biting is common in cattle. Crib
–biting is common in horses

Remedy:

Providing straw and increasing the food,
comfortable environment

13)
DRINKER PRESSING

 Pressing automated drinker repeatedly without
ingesting water.

Common in pregnant sows when provided
with a nipple drinker.

REFERENCE:

FRASER AF&
BROOM DM.1999.FARM ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR AND WELFARE

x

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