AsdefinedbytheWorldHealthOrganization(WHO)”occupationalhealthdealswithallaspectsofhealthandsafetyintheworkplaceandhasastrongfocusonprimarypreventionofhazards1.Themainfocusinoccupationalhealthisonthreedifferentobjectives:(i) laws and regulations thatclearly define theresponsibilityofthestateandtheemployerandtheemployee.ILOistheonlytripartiteU.N.agency,since1919theILObringstogethergovernments,employersandworkersof187memberStates,tosetlabourstandards,developpoliciesanddeviseprogrammespromotingdecentworkforallwomenandmen.UnderlyingtheILO’sworkistheimportanceofcooperationbetweengovernmentsandemployers’andworkers’organizationsinfosteringsocialandeconomicprogress.TheILOaimstoensurethatitservestheneedsofworkingwomenandmenbybringingtogethergovernments,employersandworkerstosetlabourstandardsdeveloppoliciesanddeviseprogrammes.TheverystructureoftheILO,whereworkersandemployerstogetherhaveanequalvoicewithgovernmentsinitsdeliberations,showssocialdialogueinaction.ItensuresthattheviewsofthesocialpartnersarecloselyreflectedinILOlabourstandards,policiesandprogrammes.TheILOencouragesthistripartism withinitsconstituents-employers

AsdefinedbytheWorldHealthOrganization(WHO)”occupationalhealthdealswithallaspectsofhealthandsafetyintheworkplaceandhasastrongfocusonprimarypreventionofhazards1.Themainfocusinoccupationalhealthisonthreedifferentobjectives:(i) Themaintenanceandpromotionofworkers’healthandworkingcapacity.(ii) Theimprovementofworkingenvironmentandworktobecomeconducivetosafetyandhealthand(iii) Developmentofworkorganizationsandworkingculturesinadirectionwhichsupportshealthandsafetyatworkandindoingsoalsopromotesapositivesocialclimateandsmoothoperationandmayenhanceproductivityoftheundertakings.? BecauseLegislationisoneofthekeymechanismstosupportpolicyandplanningactivitiesundertakenbytheoccupationalhealthsystem.? Itisgenerallyacknowledgedthatthetargetcannotbeachievedwithouttheexistenceofa modern,clearand realistic laws and regulations thatclearly define theresponsibilityofthestateandtheemployerandtheemployee.ILOistheonlytripartiteU.N.agency,since1919theILObringstogethergovernments,employersandworkersof187memberStates,tosetlabourstandards,developpoliciesanddeviseprogrammespromotingdecentworkforallwomenandmen.UnderlyingtheILO’sworkistheimportanceofcooperationbetweengovernmentsandemployers’andworkers’organizationsinfosteringsocialandeconomicprogress.TheILOaimstoensurethatitservestheneedsofworkingwomenandmenbybringingtogethergovernments,employersandworkerstosetlabourstandardsdeveloppoliciesanddeviseprogrammes.TheverystructureoftheILO,whereworkersandemployerstogetherhaveanequalvoicewithgovernmentsinitsdeliberations,showssocialdialogueinaction.ItensuresthattheviewsofthesocialpartnersarecloselyreflectedinILOlabourstandards,policiesandprogrammes.TheILOencouragesthistripartism withinitsconstituents-employers ,workers andmemberStates ,bypromotingasocialdialoguebetweentradeunionsandemployersinformulating,andwhereappropriate,implementingnationalpolicyonsocial,economic,andmanyotherissues,andbecausedifferentcountriestakedifferentapproachestoensuringoccupationalsafetyandhealth,areasofOSHneedandfocusalsovarybetweencountriesandregions.InSudanOccupationalaccidentsareunderreportedindevelopingcountries;thereisalackofconvenientaccidentsrecordingsystem,Moreover,lackofqualifiedspecialists,regulations,andactivationoflegislations.InSudan,thearticlenumber92ofthe1997SudanLaborcodeisconcernedwithoccupationalaccidents,however,thisarticleremainedinactiveuntil2005.Sincethenaccidents’recordwerekeptatadministrationofindustrialsafety,Accidentcausesaremainlyduetounsafeactsandconditions,plusManyworkingplacesinSudanaresufferingfrom bothofthem.Khartoum stateincludesKhartoum,Bahari,andOmdurmancities,andwefoundthatlargeindustrialenterprisesarelocatedprimarilyinKhartoum state.Againwithlackofaccidentanalysisofcauses,typesandoutcomesinSudan.SFMOHstatedthattheincolorationwithMOLnationaloccupationalsafetyandhealthcultureisoneinwhichtherightto asafeandhealthyworkingenvironmentisrespectedatalllevels,wheregovernments,employersandworkersactivelyparticipateinsecuringasafeandhealthyworkingenvironmentthroughasystem ofdefinedrights,responsibilitiesandduties,andwherethehighestpriorityisaccordedtotheprincipleofprevention,butunfortunatelyitfacedalotofchallenges.TheroleofministryoflabourinOSHMinistryoflabourisTheactlikeakeystakeholderinsettingtheRegulationsmadethereunder,anIndustrialSafetyInspectorshallhavethepowertoenterthefactorypremisesduringworkinghours,bydayoratnightinordertoinspect,inquireintoaccidents,examinetheequipmentandmaterials,andtakesamplesthereofortoverifyanyotherparticulars,hethinksnecessary.Thereshallbeestablishedacommitteetobeknownas”TheCentralAdvisoryCommitteeforIndustrialandworkerSafety”whichshallhaveregionalcommitteesunderitinsuchdistrictsasmaybespecifiedbytheMinister,againtheMinistershallspecifythefunctionsandpowersofthecentralCommitteeandoftheregionalcommitteesunderit.Thecommitteemayconstitutesubcommitteesinthestatesanditmayauthorizeanyofitsfunctionstosuchsubcommittees.TheSafetyCommitteeshallberesponsibleforplanningtheindustrialsafetypolicyinthefactoryandsupervisingtheimplementationthereofinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthisActanddecisionsmadethereunder.TheCommitteesshallnotifythecompetentauthorityandtheemployerwitheverythingrelatingtoindustrialsafetyconditionswithinthefactoryanditsrecommendationsinthisrespect.AlsoTheIndustrialCommitteeshallholdameetingontheoccurrenceofaseriousaccidentorwithinaweekofthediscoveryofanyoccupationaldiseaseandReportingAccidentsWhenanyaccidentoccursinanyfactorywithinthecourseofthedailyworkorasaresultthereof:a.Causesdeathofanyworker;orb.Causesfireorexplosion;orc.Causesaseriousaccident;ord.Disablesanyworkerfrom performinghisworkforoneormoredays,thefactoryownershallreportthesameattheendofthedayonwhichtheaccidentoccursintheForm setoutinSchedule.ResponsibilitiesandcompetencesofthedirectorateofoccupationalhealthinSudan:-1.Setpoliciesandstrategiesforoccupationalhealthandsafety.2.Participationinsettingcriteriaandmanualsthatexplainstherisksandtheoccupationalhealthhazardsindifferentworkingenvironments.3.Participationindraftinglaws,actsandstatutesincollaborationwithoccupationalhealthandsafetyinstitutions.4.Trainingofoccupationalhealthandsafetyworkers.5.Sustainedoverseenandsupervisionoftheactivitiesofoccupationalhealthdirectorateatthestatelevel.6.Participationindraftingcurriculafortraining.7.Conductmedicaltestandevaluationplusphysicalexanimationtoaccessthefitnessofworkersindifferentworkingenvironment.8.AssessthecomplainofindividualsandgroupofworkersrelatedtoOSH.9.Periodicalinspectionofworkplacestoassurethattheoccupationalhealthandsafetystandardsweremet.10.Regularmedicalcheckupfortheworkers.Thegovernor,inconsultationwiththeMinisterofHealthinthestate,mayordertheestablishmentofmedicalcomplexesinindustrialareasformedicaltreatmentandsupervisionofworkersinfactories,TheOrderreferredtoineachsub-sectionshallspecifytheestablishmentcosts,financingtheservices,thefunctionsandpowersofthecomplexes.Itmayalsoincludetherulesandrequirementswhichensuretheefficientcarryingoutofthedutiesthereof.AlsotheremustbeNotificationsofworkerswithoccupationaldangersEveryfactoryownershallbringtothenoticeofhisworkerstheoccupationaldangersandtheprotectionmeanstherefrom andshalltakesuchprecautionsasmaybenecessaryfortheprotectionofhisworkersagainstindustrialaccidentsorfrom occupationaldiseases.AgainthereshouldbeaTrainingprogram ofworkersasfactoryownershallassignanyworktoaworkerunlesshehasreceivedsufficienttrainingthereinorunlesssuchworkisperformedunderthesupervisionofapersonorpersonsofexperienceinsuchfieldofwork.DutiesofworkersWorkeremployedinanyfactoryshallperform anyworkofsuchnatureasmayexposehim orotherstodanger.Heshallhavethebenefitofallmeansifprotectionprovidedforhim.Employers’dutiesandresponsibilitiestoprotectthesafetyandhealthofworkersandothersDutytoensurethehealthandsafetyofemployeesEveryownerofanindustryshallinform hisworkersoftheoccupationalhazardsandmeansforprotectionagainstsuchhazards.Heshalltakethenecessaryprecautionstoprotectworkersagainstindustrialaccidentsandoccupationaldiseases.? Dutytoprotectthehealthandsafetyofpeopleotherthantheirownemployees? Collaborationamongtwoormoreemployersatthesameworkplace? Surveillanceofworkers’healthinrelationtoworkFactoryownersmustperform periodicmedicalcheck-upsforworkersworkinginhazardouslocations.? SurveillanceoftheworkingenvironmentandworkingpracticesEveryownerofanindustryshallinform hisworkersoftheoccupationalhazardsandmeansforprotectionagainstsuchhazards.Heshalltakethenecessaryprecautionstoprotectworkersagainstindustrialaccidentsandoccupationaldiseases.? DutytoprovidepersonalprotectiveequipmentThefactoryownershouldensurethatadequateprotectiveequipmentisprovidedtoworkers,andthattheseequipmentsareproperlymaintained.Heshouldalsoensurethatworkersusetheseequipment.? DutytoensuretheusageofpersonalprotectiveequipmentThefactoryownershouldensurethatadequateprotectiveequipmentisprovidedtoworkers,andthattheseequipmentsareproperlymaintained.Heshouldalsoensurethatworkersusetheseequipment.? Dutytoprovidefirst-aidandwelfarefacilitiesEveryfactoryorworkplacemustbeequippedwithafirstaidboxwithspecificcontentsandunderthesupervisionofatrainedfirstaidstaff.? SanitaryinstallationsStandardsontoiletsandsanitaryinstallationsshallbeavailableformenandwomen.? DrinkingwaterCleanhealthywatershouldbeprovidedinsufficientamountinworklocations.? RestandeatingareasCleanareassuppliedwithchairsandtablesandawayfrom theworklocationshouldbeprovided.Thislistofoccupationaldiseases:1.Poisoninganditscomplications.2.Mercurypoisoninganditscomplications.3.Arsenicpoisoninganditscomplications.4.Phosphoruspoisoninganditscomplications.5.Poisoning,gasolineorsimilarproductsorcompounds6.Manganesepoisoninganditscomplications.7.Sulphurpoisoninganditscomplications.8.Chromeulcersanditscomplications.9.Affectedbynickeanditscomplications.• 10.Poisoningbypetroleum oritsderivativesoritsgasesanditscomplications.11.Diseaseandpathologicalsymptomsthatarisefrom radium,radioactivesubstancesorX-rays.12.Thefirstskincancerandinflammationandulcerationoftheskinandeyechronic.• 13.Pulmonarydustdiseasesthatarisefrom:*Asbestosdust.*Silicadust.*Cottondust.*Dustsugarcane.14.AnthracisDifficulties and challenges facing occupationalsafety and healthdirectorate:1. Lack ofcoordination between the differentbodies which are concerned withoccupationalhealthandsafety.2.Lackofcommitmentofconcernedbodiesto fullyimplementtheplansofOSHdirectorate.3.Lackofcapacityinthepartoftheinspectionteam toperform regularinspection.4.Lowlevelofawarenessamongstintheemployersandemployee.5.Lackofproperdocumentationandresearches6.MigrationofintellectualsanddrainofcumulativeexpertiseofOSH.Suggestedsolutions1.SetupofclearerOSH programsandpoliciesthatarecomprehensibleandeasilyunderstood.2.PromotionofOSHinworkingplaces.3.ProvisionofnecessarysupportforOSHsupervisoryteam.Conclusion:-? Contactwithmachineswasthemajoraccidentcause.? Upperextremitieswerethemaininjuredorgans.Machineswerethemajorcauseofamputation,andbonebreaking.Hazardousmaterials,transportation,andmachineswerethekeydeathcauses.? Themajordangerousworkplaceconditionswerethe lackofPPEandpresenceoffaultyorinappropriatetools? Thechiefunsafeactwasusingdefectiveorfailuretousetools.? Themostimportantriskypersonalfactorwasthenegativeattitudeofworkersandsupervisorstowardssafety.? InspiteoftheavailabilityofPPE,theworkerswerenottrainedontheirproperuse.References:

x

Hi!
I'm Shane!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out