Assignment 1: Foundations of the Development and Functions of Police
Contrasting and Comparing
is a challenging, complicated, and lively filed and an attempt that usually changes.
Policing in the United States has taken three various eras i.e. the political
era, the reform era, and the community problem-solving era. There are a lot of
changes that have been witnessed regarding the manner in which the policing has
been operating in the United States (Community Policing Consortium, 2013).
political and the reform era of policing have several variations. The first dissimilarity
is on the time frame of their existence and the grounds for their foundation.
The political era was from 1840’s and 1930’s and the main reason for its
development was as a result of Mary Cecilia Rogers case in the New York to
promote police restructuring in the New York city (Community
Policing Consortium, 2013).
the other hand, reform era of policing occurred between 1930’s to 1980 and the
main reason for its creation was to do away with the political involvement in
the police. This leads to the creation of the civil service system to assist in
eliminating the patronage and the ward manipulation in recruiting and firing
police officers (Aarons, 2011).
the period of the political era, the police units were classically instituted
and managed by the local government agencies. Police were under the control of
the local government implies that the state and the Federal government did not
tamper too much. Only the well-established families and the local political
groups would be in a position to acquire the local elected positions. The
reform era of policing in the United States was under the heavy influence of
the progressive political movement which emphasized the government reforms as
well as the regulation of the society in improving the living status or
conditions (Community Policing Consortium,
the political era, the police were serving the interest of the political
leaders and the politics played part in this era to such an extent that even no
ranking patrol officer used the political backers to acquire promotions,
desired assignment, and the transfers. The corrupt political leaders usually
used the term “do you know who I am” as a way of intimidation. This
political regime had a very a poor oversight and accountability as well as a
lot of chaos dealing with crimes. The closeness within the community resulted
in a lot of overlooking (Peak, 2014).
the other hand, during reform era, the individuals who were responsible for the
reformation sought to throw out the political involvement of the police. August
Vollmer was amongst the contributing individuals during the reform period.
Vollmer created the professionalism of the police officers which was later know
as the amalgamation of the managerial effectiveness and the technical complexity
and an emphasis on the fighting of the crimes. There was police academy
training which differed from state to state and agency to agency (Peak, 2014).
difference is on the tactics and the technology whereby in the political era,
it was carried out through foot patrol by the officers while on the reform era,
there was a deterrent patrol as well as quick rejoinder time to calls received
from members of the public. Another contrasting element between the two eras is
on the ending result of what every era has attained. The goals of the political
era were to attain citizen as well as the political contentment while the
reform era sought to accomplish the control of the crimes (Peak, 2014).
regard to the association with the community, the political era was based on
intimacy while the reform era was regarded to be professional and remote. The
organization of the political era was spread out while that of the reform era
was based on the centralization and classical. The approval of the political
era was mainly on politics and legislation while the reform era was concerning rule
Skills and knowledge imparted to police
trainees during academy
the academy training, police learn that loyalty to a fellow officer,
professional behavior and endurance, and the respect for the authority are
highly valued in the police occupation. Classroom teaches the recruits on how
to approach the situations. One of the greatest skill that these officers learn
in the academy is the interpersonal and the communication skills. This is an
important skill to possess while dealing with individuals.
also need to interact effectively with the public and how to solve problems.
They also need to learn how to listen and resolve conflict in an orderly way.
In order for their performance to improve in their duties, agencies can offer instruction
to the workforce concerning the fundamental proficiency that makes the
communication process between the police and the public to be easier during the
motor vehicle stops, criminal investigation, and the family wrangles. Good
communication skills involve talking, eye contact, facial expression, body
position, gestures, and the physical contact as well. The professional
technical abilities are important because it helps the officers in carrying
their weapons in a professional way (Aarons, 2011).
Community and the traditional policing
policing refers to the approaches of policing that has its primary focus in the
development of the ties and working at a close range with the members of the
community. This is a philosophy which is used to promote the organizational
strategies in support of the systematic partnerships in the problem-solving. It
is important in addressing instant conditions that improve the safety of the public
with regard to matters like social disorder, crime, and the fear caused by
traditional policing is basically concerns with the apprehension of the
criminals whilst gathering enough evidence to convict them. The role of the
traditional policing is to respond to the incidences and clearing 911 calls. It
is nevertheless merely a momentary fix to an ongoing problem. Community
policing, on the other hand, is targeting at assisting the public to establish
as well as maintain a secure and orderly environment.
though community policing apprehends criminals, they are usually involved in
addressing the crimes that concern the community at most. Community policing
also solves the civilian problems by working closely with people. Community
policing uses town gatherings, community polls, meetings and call-in programs
to gather information. Therefore, the traditional policing are reactive in
nature whereas the community policing is proactive in nature (Cheyard, 2012).
Essential elements in the
implementation and the appraisal of the community policing and problem solving
are critical elements of utilizing the implementation as well as the evaluation
of the community policing and the problem-solving. Being in a possession of
detailed long-range plans together with tasks and the time frames plus
assigning officers to execute plan are important in the community policing and
solving of the problems.
use of the implementation in assuring the phases of the community policing and
the problem-solving methods produce positive outcomes. This is a complicated
process regarding the use of the implementation in developing a community
policing approaches because it always includes a great number of planning and
management for the transformation to be realized.
Top five qualities to be possessed by
the detectives and undercover officers
determination of the five qualities that detectives and the undercover officers
must be possessing is a challenging task to be measured because of the avert
officer and the variation in the situation thus it is not uninformed aspect.
However, the first quality can be communication and the second would be to have
the capacity to work under pressure. The third quality is the integrity while
the fourth quality is being level headed and in control of their emotions. The
final quality is the knowledge of the law (Lawrence, 2014).
is an open perspective because it is not just simply a talk between two people
with regard to the kind of job done by the detectives and the undercover
officers. There are several kinds of communication and this can include: body
language, proxemics, and the paralinguistic. The ability of these officers to
read the body language can potentially save their life. Proxemics involves the
amount of the space that persons feel it necessary to set between them and
other individuals. When on duty, the spatial awareness enables the undercover
officers to complete their mission (Peak, 2014).
D. (2011). Defensive tactics. Why personal weapon self-defense tactics should
be a priority. Law officer, Police and Law Enforcement.
Cheyard, G. (2012,
August 3). The disparity between traditional and community policing.
Retrieved January 3, 2018, from Heritage Newspaper:
Consortium. (2013). Understanding Community Policing. A Framework for
action. Retrieved January 25, 2018, from Bureau of Justice Assistance, US
Department of Justice: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
Lawrence, N. (2014).
Good characteristics of a police officer. Retrieved January 25, 2018,
from Demand Media:
Peak, K. (2014). Policing
America: Challenges and best practices. New Jersey: Pearson Publishing.