Childhood obesity and
overweight and factors associated with it.
“Childhood obesity isn’t some simple, discrete issue. There’s no one cause
we can pinpoint. There’s no one program we can fund to make it go away. Rather,
it’s an issue that touches on every aspect of how we live and how we work.”
In the last few decades of the twentieth century,
overweight and obesity have become a major threat for the higher income
has already reached the epidemic level in developed countries of America,
Europe with prevalence rate of 63 and 59 per 1000 respectively (WHO estimates
2016). Obesity has been found to be a strong predictor of several
well-established risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality. They are directly linked with the rise in
non-communicable diseases like diabetes, hypertension etc. The global
increase in overweight and obesity at the young age is directly linked with the
risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Worldwide, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being
overweight or obese, and an estimated 35.8 million (2.3%) of global DALYs are
caused by overweight or obesity (WHO). Also there is
a concern that the rise in global obesity will slow down or even reverse the
significant mortality reductions experienced by the high income countries in
the past few decades (Swinburn et al. 2011). Reversing the
obesity epidemic should be an urgent priority (Mokdad et al., 2003). Earlier,
higher proportion of population suffering from problems of over-weight and
obesity resided in higher income and industrialized countries (Caballero,
2007). Developing countries are now going under various transitions like
demographic, epidemiological, economic, as well as nutritional transition.
Rising household income has contributed a lot for reducing the childhood
under-nutrition, but also there has been a rapid rise in proportion of
over-weight and obese people (Jef L. Leroy et al) Due to this, for countries
like India, the issue is more serious. Earlier developing countries had high prevalence
of under-nutrition but now there is a double burden of under-nutrition as well
as over-nutrition. In developing countries, malnutrition is a medical as
well as a social disorder (Sidhu & Kaushal, 2005). This double burden of over-nutrition and under-nutrition is now a public
health challenge in developing countries. Under-nutrition is still a
significant cause of deaths of children in less developed and developing countries. Although eradicating
hunger was a part of Millennium Development Goal, undernutrition still
continues to be prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries throughout
Almost all the health and nutrition policies in the developing countries is
emphasising on undernutrition but at the same time, rising prevalence of
over-nutrition is now a serious health threat. Childhood obesity was considered
as an issue in the economically rich countries, but now this problem has
started appearing in the less developed countries also. Childhood obesity is
now a recent epidemic with high magnitude in India (Tanu Midha et al., 2012). Due to rise in overweight and obesity
in the recent decades, it is now important for the countries to focus on
regular monitoring of prevalence of it in the population.
studies on over-weight or obesity of children
1.3 Need of the study
India is one of the most
populous countries with a population of about 121 million (Census, 2011). There
is a considerable improvement in economic as well as social fronts in the
recent years. It can be seen by the improvements in various indicators of
mortality and morbidity such as infant mortality ratio (IMR), maternal
mortality ratio (MMR), and life expectancy. However, improvement in nutritional
status of females and children is found to be lagged behind. Also, the country
is facing the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in
which the role of nutrition is very important. There are a lot of studies on
under-nutrition in India for children, but over-nutrition in children and
factors associated with it are currently ignored. Due to progressive
urbanization and changing life style, childhood over-weight and obesity has
become an equally challenging. It is
a fast emerging problem for which national representative data is scarce. Not
only are obese children at an increased risk of developing serious medical and
psychological complications, they are also likely to stay obese into
adolescence and adulthood (Gibson et.al). Moreover, if begun in childhood,
obesity in adulthood is likely to be more severe. Also effective
preventive of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood
obesity. WHO has also emphasized on urgent need of understanding the prevalence
trend, factors contributing and developing strategies for effective
intervention. Obesity is one of the preventable risk factors for various
non-communicable diseases but studies of obesity for children are very rare. With
these backgrounds in mind, the current paper will be an attempt to highlight
the problem of obesity and over-weight by showing its prevalence, trends,
patterns and its association with various factors. Also the association of
mother’s weight with nutritional status of child will be checked.
1.4 Objectives of the study: –
1) To assess the nutritional status of children and various factors
associated with it.
2) To examine the pattern of food consumption in children and its impact
on their nutritional status.
3) To study the impact of mother’s weight on obesity amongst their
4) To study the association between children’s nutritional status and
diseases like anaemia.
1.5 Hypothesis: –
1) There is no significant difference in food consumption pattern in children.
2) There is no impact of mother’s weight on children.
3) There is no association between child’s nutritional status and anaemia.
1.6 Organization of the dissertation:-
1.2 Existing studies on over-weight or obesity of women.
1.3 Need of the study.
1.4 Objectives of the study.
1.6 Organization of the dissertation.
2.2 Data source.
2.3 Information available in the survey.
2.4 Variable construction.
2.5 Defining over-weight and obesity, and describing techniques to be