CONCEPT times in schools which acts as a

CONCEPT
NOTE

Introduction

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Empowerment
of children and adolescents is very essential in the context prevailing today
in India as there is rapid globalization and urbanization with breaking up of
joint families and dwindling traditional social support systems. Psychological
problems in children and adolescents, especially behaviour problems and
suicides, are on an ever- increasing rise. (The Minds Foundation, 2017).Children’s
development is very crucial for the progress of the nation. Children are
moulded by the parents, teachers, peers, community and educational system as a
whole. The educational system comprising of the teachers, parents and peers is
highly significant, not only in the intellectual development but also in the
development of the behaviour. Apart from being at home, Children spend most of
their times in schools which acts as a source of knowledge, skills, experiences
and learning – both academic and behavioural. The role of the teachers is
undoubtedly extremely valuable, because teachers are the sources of inspiration
and guidance in the crucial steps in life of the students (Kaur & Sachdeva,
2017). The way, teachers deal with the children in motivating and correcting
them plays a vital in the formation of the character and personality.

Significance of the
study

A
sound educational system is considered a one of the bedrocks of developing
countries like India (Priyadarshini & Prabakar, 2016). After the recent
prohibition of Corporal Punishment in schools enacted by the Right to Education
Act, 2009 and other international laws like constitutional provisions, Indian
Penal code, Juvenile Justice Act (2000) Schedule Castes and Schedule tribes Act
(1989), Protection of Civil rights act (1955), handling of children in the
schools have become a tedious and confusing task. Suicidal decisions and other
negative consequences of disciplining the children are on the rise. Thus,
teachers lack clarity in dealing with the problematic child behaviour. This
study will help in the identification of the current informal/formal
disciplining techniques, its effectiveness and proposing a model for better
disciplining of children in schools.

 

Objectives

The
objectives of the study are:

·        
To identify the
disciplinary problems experienced in the school environment

·        
To find out the current
disciplining measures practiced in schools

·        
To analyse the
effectiveness related to the disciplining methods

·        
To understand the
acceptance levels of parents towards disciplining

·        
To suggest a social
work intervention model in disciplining of children in schools

Review of Literature

The Minds Foundation (2017), an organization
which promotes mental health programmes in schools states that keen alertness
is important in order to avoid children get punished – that correlates with
school failure. The organization also emphasizes on the need to equip teachers
to handle issues at school which will reduce the problems as children otherwise
internalize the debilitating effects of performing poorly at school.

According to the most updated census data,
approximately 41% of India’s population is below the age of 20. However, there
has been a growing burden of mental illnesses in the agr group of 15 -24
globally, and this has brought mental health into the picture for the last two
decades. The prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders in India is 12.5% among
children aged 0-16, and 12% among the 4-16 year olds. Suicide deaths rates in
India are among the highest in the world, standing at 36 for every 100000 youth
citizens. (The Minds Foundation, 2017)

School discipline is a critical area for
research, as student interaction with school institutional author is one of the
primary mechanisms whereby young people come into contact with and internalize
societal norms, values and rules (Law and Disorder – Classroom, 2009)

School is the formal way of education system;
hence, it is one of the most important socialising agent in the development of
a child. It is the organized part of the process, through which each successive
generation learns the accumulated knowledge of a society. (Quality of classroom
environment, 2017)

A Study on Stress amongst Secondary School
Children by Sundeep et all (2016) states that the stressors of the school
children are Role and value conflicts, parental pressure, pressure for
performance in schools and colleges, Emotional and sexual adjustment and Coping
with pressure of living.

As cited by Elizabeth T Gershoff (2017) in
Journal of Psychology, Health and Medicine, Children around the world report
that they are hit by their teachers with a variety of objects, including sticks
(Egypt: Youssef et all., 1998), straps, 
(Jamaica, Baker – Heningham, Meeks – Gardener, Chang &Waker, 2009)
and wooden boards ( US: Pickens Country (Alabama) Board of Education, 2015)

An incident quoted from Times of India stated
that a class X student of a government school on Tuesday allegedly committed
suicide at his house in Melakuppam, Vellore after he was sent home to bring his
parents for injuring his classmate. (“15-year-old govt school student” 2018)

News from Times of India speaks about a 12-year
old student in Thiruvananthapuram who is suspected to have attempted suicide by
throwing herself from the balcony in the school premises due to harassment by a
teacher. (“Girl hurt after fall” 2018)

Kalker (1984), Borg, Riding and Falzon (1991),
Boyle, Borg, Fazlon, Baglioni (1995) and Lewis (1999) identified that school
teacher’s experience high levels of stress during teaching and handling
students.

Sahu & Sahu (2017) emphasizes the roles of
teacher to be limitless but two basic sets of teacher’s roles are often
proposed – one is concerned with activities of instruction and evaluation and
the other with maintaining control and creating academic environment for learning.

Hypothesis:

1.     
There is no significant relationship between the disciplining
measures and the problems experienced in the school environment

2.     
There is no significant relationship between the disciplining
measures and the behaviour of the children in school

3.     
There is no significant relationship between the teacher’s
attitude and the effectiveness of disciplining measures

4.     
There is no significant relationship between the familial
conditions and the behaviour of the students

5.     
There is no significant relationship between the level of
interaction of the teachers with the students and effectiveness of disciplining
measures.

6.     
There is no significant relationship between the teaching
experience of the teachers and the effectiveness of disciplining measures.  

7.     
There is no significant relationship between the student –
teacher ratio and the behaviour of the children.

8.     
There is no significant relationship between the students’
acceptance of the disciplining methods and the effectiveness of disciplining
measures.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Proposed Method:

The Mixed method is the proposed method of the
research study. The Mixed method includes both quantitative as well as
quantitative methods.

Field of Study:

The field of study will be Corporation (High
and Higher secondary) Schools in Chennai in order to focus on Adolescent
disciplining problems, the disciplinary measures adopted and the behaviour
modification. Field of data collection will be based on the Zonal Divisions of
Corporation Schools in Chennai.

Research Design:

The research design of the study will be
descriptive so as to describe the disciplining problems, measures used and its
effectiveness in behavioural modification in students. This research design
explains the reality of the present day educational system and the process of
imparting knowledge and discipline in the contemporary world.

 

Sampling Method:

The researcher is planning to use the Probability
Sampling techniques in view of giving equal chance of inclusion of the samples
in the data collection. Under Probability sampling method, Cluster Sampling is
found to be appropriate so as to select samples from each zones of Chennai
Corporation Schools. The proposed sample size of study is 300.

Data Collection

The data collection will based on the Zonal Divisions
of the corporation schools. The primary respondents of the research consist of teachers,
students and parents. The tools of data collection will be Interview Schedule,
Focus Group Discussions, Participant Observation & Case Studies.

Analysis

The collected information and the data will be
analysed through descriptive frequencies, statistical analysis through ANOVA,
Chi – square test, T – Test and through graphical representations. The analysis
also includes Qualitative and Quantitative analysis. SPSS, MS Excel and MS Word
will be used for data analysis process. 

Limitations of the Study

·        
The research findings are limited to the Chennai corporation
schools only and not to be interpreted in private schools.

·        
The role of family in disciplining of the children is not
studied in a detailed in this study

Conclusion

In the recent years, instances of internalizing
problems in students due to improper and inappropriate disciplining methods
have been on the rise. These
internalizing have led to emotional, physical, cognitive and relational problems.
While mental health promotion in the schools is the focus worldwide,
appropriate, motivational and positive disciplining is very significant. The
method of research will be mixed method using descriptive research design.
Sampling method will be probability sampling. The data collected using various
tools will be analysed through statistical tests and graphical representations,
enabling to propose an interdisciplinary social work intervention model.

References

Newspaper Articles

15-year-old govt school student ends life
(2018, January 9) Times of India.
Retrieved from: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/15-year-old-govt-school-student-ends-life/articleshow/62435571.cms

Girl
hurt after fall from school building (2018, January 9) Times of India. Retrieved from: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/thiruvananthapuram/girl-hurt-after-fall-from-school-building/articleshow/62435350.cms

Internet Sources:

The Minds Foundation (2017, May 22), TBI Blogs:
Why Indian Schools are providing Mental Health Counselling for their Students.
Retrieved from: https://www.thebetterindia.com/100048/scchool-education-programmes-mental-health-children/

Journals

Kaur & Sachdeva
(2017, May), Construction and Standardization of Perceived School Problems
Scale, Asian Journal of research in
Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 7, Issue No. 5, Pages: 166-178.

M.
Priyadarshini & Dr. S. Prabakar (2016, August), An empirical study on Job
Satisfaction, Organizational Role Stress and Burnout among Secondary School
Teachers in Coimbatore, Asian Journal of
research in Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 6, Issue No. 8,
Pages:  1575 – 1585.

Kalker,
P. (1984), Teacher stress and burnout: causes and coping strategies.
Contemporary education, Vol. 56, Pages: 16-19. Retrieved from: www.researchgate.com

Borg,
M.G., Riding, R. J., &Falzon, J.M (1991), Stress in teaching: A study of
occupational stress and its determinants, job satisfaction and career
commitment among primary school teachers.
International Journal of educational psychology, Vol. 11,Pages: 59 – 75

Boyle,
J. G., Borg, M. G., Falzon, J. M, & Baglioni, A. J. (1995), A structural
model of the dimensions of teacher stress,
British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 65, Pages: 49 – 67.

Lewis,
R. (1999), Teachers coping with the stress of classroom discipline.  Social Psychology of Education, Vol. 3, Pages:
155 – 171.

Elizabeth
T Gershoff (2017) School Corporal Punishment in global perspective: prevalence,
outcomes, and efforts at interventions, Psychology,
Health and Medicine, Vol. 32, No: 1, pages: 224-239

World
Health Organization(2005) Child and Adolescent Mental health policies and
plans. Mental Policy and service guidance package2006, Geneva, WHO

Richard
Arum &Doreet Preiss (2009), Law and Order – Classroom, Education Next,
Fall, Pages: 59 – 66. Retrieved from: www.educationnext.org

Nitu
Sahu &ChaturbhujSahu (2017), Quality of Classroom Environment of Government
School Situated in the Outskirt of Bokaro City, the Asian Man, Vol. 11, Issue 1, Jan – Jun 2017, Pages 76 – 80

Sundeep
D, Suwarna Madhukumar, Pavithra MB (2016) A Study on Stress amongst Secondary
School Children, Indian Journal of Public
Health Research & Development, Vol 5, Issue No. 3, Jul – Sep 2016,
Pages: 111 – 115

 

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