However, construction industry
has a tremendous growth also development, and now it is essential for employers
and employees to be aware of health and safety issues.
Construction should be
stimulated to benchmarks its safety practices and performances against other
industries. And better opportunity should be taken to learn from failures, with
implementation of accident investigation procedures thus, construction industry
is working very hard to improve its health and safety record.
Construction is globally one
of the most hazardous industries, therefore the importance of health and safety
in companies specially on construction is recognized because the encouragements
for organsations to strive for high health and safety standards which are legal
However, with the new requirements the accidents reduce but
after that it become apparent that accidents still happened, and the causes of
these accidents were the result of technical failures. Rather of the importance
of inadequate organizational issues such as lack of adherence to standard
health and safety rules or poor communication within the company.
Construction is one of the
most dangerous on health and safety criteria especially in developing
countries, but health and safety came to protect the wellbeing of employers,
visitors and customers from harm which can makes good business sense.
Therefore, ignoring health and safety risk prosecution, might lose staff, and
can increase costs. And efforts have been made but the results it still not
satisfactory as construction accidents continue high within the industry. Based
on studies cases, for example Pyeroy Ltd, where a worker died because he was using
a mobile elevated work platform (MEWP) and regarding a pre-existing heart
conditions. The accident could be avoided if Pyeroy planned the staff work at
height with a MEWP in certain areas and how to act in emergency situations thus
can be observe that suitable training was not provided, as well the company has
not following the procedures of the elevated platforms. They failed Regulation
4 of the Work at Height Regulations 2005.
4. The impact of Health and Safety legislation
Figure 4 – Rate
of employer-reported non-fatal injury (Executive, 2017)
Figure 3 – Number of fatal injuries to
employees (Executive, 2017)
Improve environmental quality.
Increase productivity and
Improve project quality.
Reduce claims and litigations.
Reduce construction site
Although, health and safety
training should be essential at all levels of an organization, such ensure that
all workers have up-to-date training to encourage a better awareness of health
and safety. Also, the integration of BIM helped to improve safety in
construction, therefore BIM is a technical progression represented the form of
3D (visuals) and 4D (scheduling) which can be used for safety purposes by
construction companies. However, the construction was benefited through changes
health and safety:
Health and safety help the
industry become more effective on conclusion of the projects on time at same
time improve their business profile with clients.
The health and safety in construction
industry not only ensures the wellbeing of the employers and productive but
also help to reduce the human costs of injuries. Thus
3. Benefits for construction Health and
Figure 2 – The UK organization chart
of projects agents, construction project phases, and the health and safety. (Martínez-Aires, et al., 2016)
Although, everyone with duties
under CDM 2015 need to cooperate with others involved within project working
with each other to ensure health and safety for all and should involve
communication between them to understanding what to do and in what sequence.
A successful project requires
the collaboration of all parties through working together the team can improve
in every aspect, and the major constituent of collaborative environments is how
to communication as well share data efficiently without damage. Therefore, the
key part of the success of collaboration and communication is the incorporation
of BIM for a better management and share of information. Such as designers,
construction managers, and contractors can use BIM to achieve tasks more
efficiently than before because with collaboration on construction it can
improve worker safety, better coordination, improve emergency situations, more
trust and respect among all parties. Formerly with the availability of the technologies
construction industry needs to make the most using the internet to share
information onsite with workers, making sure essential health and safety
information is communicated, which will help raise awareness of any developing
risks and hazards.
2.2 The role of collaboration and
The CDM 2015 cover the
management of health, safety and welfare of construction projects, to ensure
the risk of harm for those who are working on build is reduced. Thus, aims to
improve health and safety in industry by helping plan the work so the risks are
managed from start to finish, so that way can have the right people to do the job
on right time with the right data about the risks. And, how they can be managed,
communicate the information effectively for the right person, to consult and
engage with workers about the risks. Therefore,
CDM applies entire building and construction work including demolition,
refurbishment, new building, repair and maintenance.
The Construction (Design and
Management) Regulations (CDM 2015)
These regulations apply to
employers, employees and the self-employed, consequently workers are obliged to
make full use of any safety control measures place, and report any defects in
these facilities or processes that may result in their failure.
any chemicals labelled as toxic, corrosive, harmful
Hazardous substances are any that could result in
ill health only asbestos, and substances below ground in mines are excluded because
they have their own regulations, but as far as agriculture is concerned some of
the main types include:
The 2002 regulations COSHH, its proposed to
protect the health of anybody in contact with hazardous substances during at work,
and the regulations placed essential measures that employers must follow. Then failure
to not obey COSHH, exposing employees to risk, constitutes an offence and subject
to penalties under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
Control of Substances
Hazardous to Health (COSHH) 2002
RIDDOR, these regulations require employers, self-employed
and people in charge of buildings, to report the deaths, injuries, work-related
diseases and dangerous occurrences. And incidents
can be reported only for the responsible persons in control of
work premises submitting reports under RIDDOR.
Reporting of Injuries Diseases
and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations (RIDDOR) 2013
Work at Height Regulations 2005 were presented to avoid death and injury caused
by falls from height to minimise risks to works. Therefore, anyone involved on
a project, such as employers, facilities managers, builder owners or anyone
that controls work at height even an independent worker, in case of accident it
can be considered responsible in case of accident. Thus, the employer need to
have a legal obligation that the regulation is been used correctly, planned,
supervised by competent individuals. Therefore, the regulations state that the
employer must ensure that workers have available to the Work at Height
equipment, including Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Workers also need an appropriate
training in the use of that equipment and should be properly supervised. However, another responsibility of the
employer is to guarantee that workers are warned to fragile surfaces with prominent
warning notices as they approach the hazard. Thus, the guidance also recommends
that equipment is made available, such as guardrail, to prevent an individual
entering a dangerous Work at Height area.
The Working at Height
Even though, written record of
health and safety policy should be always revised by employers, but it applies
only to those who employ more than five.
welfare provisions for staff
suitable training of staff to
ensure health and safety.
safe use, handling and storage
of dangerous substances.
maintenance of safe access and
entrance to the workplace.
safe operation and maintenance
of the working environment, plant and systems.
Health and Safety at work Act 1974 (HSWA) is the main UK legislation which has
affecting entire construction industry, therefore it came to places obligation
on employers to guarantee the health, safety and welfare at work, practical to all
workers and who has contact on the buildings. Also, the Act involves:
2.1 Legislation on construction industry
Confined Spaces Regulations 1997
Noise at Work Regulations 2005
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) regulations
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence
Regulations (RIDDOR) 2013
The Construction (Design and Management)
Regulations (CDM 2015)
Working at Height Regulations 2005
to avoid most of the accidents were implementing rigorous health and safety
procedures and make sure those procedures are constantly maintained health and
safety standards on building sites. Then the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
implement regulations to specific and certain area relating to constructions.
Figure 1- Main
injury kind for fatal injuries. (Executive, 2017)
were 30 fatal injuries to workers in the Construction sector in 2016/17, around
30% lower than the five-year average for 2011/12-2015/16 (43).’ (Executive,
the UK, construction industry health and safety are a concern because the higher
accident rate compared to other industries. But, it is expected that a huge
industry such as construction, with a larger number of employees, might have a larger
number of industry-related fatalities. Though, does not mean the fatalities need
to be acceptable and the number of deaths relative to the number of industry
employees is totally disproportionate, such the construction industry employments
5% of the UKs workers, until now the sector accounts for 10% of reported major
injuries and a massive third fatal worker injury each year.
and safety set out what people involved in construction industry including
clients, architects, contractors, need to do, to protect staff and others from
harm arising from work activities. Therefore, it helps the workers and
managements identify hazards and control risks explained how to plan, control
and monitoring during the life of a project. Health and safety need to be in
all aspects of construction because the constant potential accidents and
hazards. The main accidents
which cause death or thoughtful injury on construction sites contain falls,
incidents with site vehicles, failing materials and contact with overhead power
2. Health and Safety
in the UK there are a countless number of laws, directives and regulations,
such as Health and Safety at Work Acts (HSWA, 1974) which affect the workplace.
According to Health and Safety Executive reports, the main causes of accidents
are falling from ladders, being struck by excavators, falling through fragile
roofs and overturning vehicles. However, to ensure that health and safety
issues are planned, organized, controlled, and monitored, everyone working on
site must have the H&S responsibilities because accidents can cost
employers a lot money.
report explained the development of health and safety within construction
industry. Therefore, the health and safety are relevant to all industry
particularly on construction, thus is considered the most exposed sector when
it comes to accidents. There are thousands of people that are extremely
injured, and suffer from health problems such as dermatitis and deafness.