INTRODUCTION is a renewed interest in human cloning?

INTRODUCTION

FIGURE -1

Human Cloning is the
creation in which the human are genetically copied. There are two types of theoretical
human cloning these are: therapeutic cloning and reproductive
cloning. Two common methods are Therapeutic cloning which
involves cloning cells from a human which is used in medicine and also in
transplantation. Reproductive cloning is that which involve
making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues.

Importance of Human
Cloning  In medicine cloning is
used to find out about those genes which cause diseases, this is also known as gene therapy.

SCNT can create clones for both
reproductive and therapeutic purposes. The diagram above depicts the removal of
the donor nucleus so that it can be schematic  

FIGURE -2

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1. Why there is a renewed interest in human cloning?

2. Why science has an ETHICAL ISSUES in cloning research?

3. What is the role of autonomy in cloning research?

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PROCESS OF SCNT

In the process of SCNT
which involves two different cells. The first being a gamete which is of female,and
which is known as the ovum (egg/oocyte). In human SCNT experiments, these eggs
are that which is obtained through the consenting donors, utilizing ovarian
stimulation. The second is a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human
body. Skin cells, fat cells, and liver cells are only a few examples.( 1)The nucleus of the donor egg cell
is completely removed and discarded, leaving it ‘deprogrammed.’ What is left is
a somatic cell and also unnucleated egg cell. (2)They are then fused by inserting the somatic cell into ovum which
is empty. After being inserted into the egg, the somatic cell nucleus is now reprogrammed by host egg cell. The ovum, which
is now containing the somatic cell’s nucleus, is now stimulated with the shock
and will begin to divide. The egg is now viable and capable of producing an
adult organism that contain all the necessary genetic information from just one
parent. (3)

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BENEFITS OF HUMAN CLONING
(6)

1) Human cloning is a technology that could be used to completely
reverse the heart attacks.

2) Conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s
disease, diabetes, heart failure,and many other problems that may be made
curable if the human cloning and its technology are not banned.

3) Infertility

4) Breast implants. 

5) Defective genes.

6) Down’s syndrome..

7) Tay-Sachs disease.

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Ethical issues at different phases of stem cell
research

Ethical issues of the human
cloning have become an important issue in recent years. There are many ethical
arguments against the human cloning which are based on misconceptions. One of
the most and serious problems of the cloning of human embryos for therapeutic purposes
is that with harvesting stem cells, the embryo is formed by cloning practical and
killed. We strictly cannot reduce the existence of the human embryo to “a
cell” as long as after both science and teaching of the Church, the human
embryo is a carrier of the life.(5)

Table 1

 

In this nucleus
transfer techniques human stem cell research raises the concerns beyond the
moral status of any created embryo. This have led to some individuals and
organizations who are not opposed to human embryonic stem cell
research to be concerned about, or opposed to, SCNT research(4)(5)(6)

1. Medical risks of oocyte retrieval.

Severe
hyperovulation syndrome may require hospitalization or surgery, so women who
are donating oocytes for research should be protected against the costs of
complications of hormonal stimulation and the oocyte retrieval (7).

2. Protecting the reproductive interests of women in
infertility treatment.

3. Payment to oocyte donors.

Some
object that such payments which induce women to undertake the excessive risks,
particularly the poorly educated women who have limited options for the employment,
which is occurred in the Hwang scandal. (10)

4. Informed consent for oocyte donation.

In California there is CIRM which has instituted
heightened requirements for the informed consent for oocyte donation for
research (7). The CIRM regulations go beyond the requirements for disclosure of
information to oocyte donors (7). The major ethical issue is that whether the
donors appreciates key information about the oocyte donation, not whether the
information that has been disclosed to them or not. In other research settings,
the research participants often fail to understand the information in detailed
consent forms(8)

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Findings in the research is that there is a renewed
interest in human cloning and science has an ETHICAL ISSUES in cloning
research.There is also the role of autonomy in cloning research these are all
the things that I discussed in summary some I wrote from articles using PUBMED
and answers of some questions are given according to what I researched during
semester 2..

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SUMMARY

1)There are renewed interest in
human cloning because people began to see the opportunities for the profit and
notoriety, the European ban only blocks the actual implantation, nurture, and
birth of human clones, and not also cloning research on human embryos that are
never implanted.. (9) 

2)The issues are very complex and
difficult, and many scientific uncertainties remain. Conflicting values are at
stake, and Americans also disagree on the implications of this new technology
for the social and cultural values they hold dearest

3)So many forms that autonomy justifications can take.
However, there are three stand out as particularly influential in discussions
of the human cloning:

1.   
“Personal
freedom.” In this there is a strong commitment in many countries, the
United States in particular, to respecting people’s freedom. This commitment
which is rooted in a variety of the religious and secular traditions. Respect
for the people entails allowing them to make the most important life decisions
that flow from their own personal values, beliefs, and also goals, rather than
coercing  to live by a burdensome array.

2.   
“Reproductive
choice.” Reproductive decisions are especially private and the personal
matters. Social intrusion in the realm is particularly odious.

3.   
“Scientific
inquiry.”  high value has long been
placed on protecting the freedom of the scientific inquiry. More knowledge and
better understanding enhance our capacity to make good decisions and accomplish
the great things in the world.

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REFERENCES:

(1)Li, J; Liu, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S; Liu, F; Wang, X; Wang, Y (2009). “Human embryos derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer
using an alternative enucleation approach”. Cloning and Stem
Cells.  PMID 19196043

(2)Pattinson, Shaun D.; Kind, Vanessa  2017-09-12  “Using
a moot to develop students’ understanding of human cloning and statutory
interpretation”. Medical Law International. doi:10.1177/0968533217726350

(3)Wilmut, I.; Schnieke, A. E.; McWhir, J.; Kind, A.
J.; Campbell,
K. H. S.1997). “Viable offspring
derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells” PMID 9039911

(4)G. P.; Dewitt, N. D.  2013. “Somatic cell nuclear transfer
in Oregon: Expanding the pluripotent space and informing research
ethics”. Stem Cells and Development. 22 Suppl 1: 25–8. . PMID 24304071.

(5)B; Parham, L  2009 “Ethical issues in stem cell research”. Endocrine
Reviews. 30 (3): 204–13. . PMC 2726839?. PMID 19366754.

(6)Semb H 2005″Human
embryonic stem cells: origin, properties and
applications”. APMIS. 113 (11–12): PMID16480446

(7)LOXMAX GP, Hall ZW, 2007 Responsible oversight of human
stem cell research. The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine’s
Medical and Ethical Standards. PLoS Med 4:e114 PMC free article PubMed

 (8)Spar D 2007 The egg trade—making sense of the market for
human oocytes. N Eng. J Med 356:1289–1291 PubMed

 (9)Leon R. Kass, “The Wisdom of Repugnance: Why We Should Ban the Cloning of
Humans,” Valparaiso University Law Review 32 (spring 1998): 679-705.

APPENDIX

FIGURE
-1 https://www.google.ge/search?biw=1280&bih=694&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=cGljWsqsOYq-kwWytongAQ&q=human+cloning+images&oq=human+cloning+&gs_l=psy-ab.3.0.0l4j0i67k1j0l5.14118.16140.0.17367.10.10.0.0.0.0.138.1017.0j9.9.0….0…1c.1.64.psy-ab..2.8.909…0i24k1.0.RvlhJ2obncQ#imgrc=OF98hK02GbjxVM:

FIGURE -2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_cloning#/media/File:Cloning_diagram_english.svg

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