Mobile routing purpose with different advantages and disadvantages.

Mobile Ad
Hoc Networks (MANETs) are the networks that are consist of mobile nodes that
can communicate with each other without existing infrastructure. In MANETs the
nodes can come and go with in the network at any time, therefore the network is
highly dynamic which mandates efficient routing protocol. Mobile nodes may use
connectivity for its own services (browsing, messaging) as well as act as
router for other mobile nodes. The mobile nature of nodes, these nodes change their
locations frequently and randomly (Rangaraj, 2017).

Mobile Ad
Networks having the capability of self-management and due this capacity these
networks play a vital role where network is necessary but deployment of
infrastructure is not easy due to environment constraints. Ad Hoc network can
be created rapidly in disaster area where limited resource is available. The
advancement in technology and requirements of next generation, the mobile ad
hoc networks will be the necessary requirement due to low cost of deployment
and easy to manage. Routing protocols play important role to route the data
packets with the help of intermediate routers. When a user wants to become the
part of this type of network, user must configure a routing protocol, protocol
will start route discovery, find the route path to send data packets. Routing
protocols calculate the routing overhead, depend of protocol type, calculate
the available bandwidth and maintain the updated topology which frequently
changes with time to time. There are many mobile ad hoc routing protocols
available for routing purpose with different advantages and disadvantages.

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Routing
protocol are set of algorithms that decided how a data packet will be routed on
different routes to reach from source to destination. In any network, router
devices used routing protocols to route data packets through different paths to
send packets. There are three major type of ad hoc routing protocols reactive,
proactive and hybrid. Routing Protocols can be broadly classified into three
types as Table Driven Protocols or Proactive Protocols, On-Demand Protocols or
Reactive Protocols and Hybrid Protocols.

Mobile Ad
Hoc Network (MANET) is a set of mobile or wireless stations that are located
dynamically and randomly in such a way that the interconnections between
stations may change continuously. Mobility models can greatly impact the
performance of MANET and its routing protocol, therefore, mobility of nodes,
the network size and packet size are some factors that require critical
consideration in determining which model and protocol is deployed in a given
situation.

It is very
important to analyze the routing protocols proposed for MANETs (AODV, OLSR, DSR
and GRP) for efficient communication from source to destination over multiple
intermediate hops. In real systems, mobile nodes move within and outside of the
network at different speeds and stops at different intervals. To evaluate these
mobile networks and behavior of nodes Random Way Point Mobility Model is used. The random waypoint model was first
proposed by Johnson and Maltz and it is used widely in simulating MANETs.
Mobility models are
used for simulation purposes when new network protocols are evaluated.

Delays,
number of hops and throughput are of vital importance for efficient data
communication. The data traffic communication is also dependent upon the
application scenarios. For example, some applications may require higher
throughput but still be loss tolerant at the same time and vice versa. In each
protocol three important parameters delay, number of hop and throughput are
analyzed which are very necessary in network communication.

There are
many network simulators available like NS2, OMNET++, QualNet, NetSim and OPNET
that can be used to design and create network simulations but this research selects
OPNET 14.5. With the help of a comprehensive performance analysis the best
routing protocols are identified for each of the simulated network scenarios

The
main objective of this research is to analyze the reactive and proactive
routing protocols that are proposed for MANETs, i.e. Ad Hoc on Demand Distance
Vector (AODV), Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), and Dynamic Source Routing
(DSR) to find the best out of them on the basis of end-to-end
delay, load measurements, pause time variation and throughput. Further, the
research will provide a recommendation structure for selecting efficient
routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc network.

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